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The Text of the Dodd-Frank Act
International Association of Risk and Compliance Professionals (IARCP)
 
Dodd Frank Act Section 1461
Subtitle E—Mortgage Servicing

SEC. 1461. ESCROW AND IMPOUND ACCOUNTS RELATING TO CERTAIN CONSUMER CREDIT TRANSACTIONS.

(a) IN GENERAL.
—Chapter 2 of the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1631 et seq.) is amended by inserting after section 129C (as added by section 1411) the following new section:

‘‘ 129D. Escrow or impound accounts relating to certain consumer credit transactions

‘‘(a) IN GENERAL.—Except as provided in subsection (b), (c), (d), or (e), a creditor, in connection with the consummation of a consumer credit transaction secured by a first lien on the principal dwelling of the consumer, other than a consumer credit transaction under an open end credit plan or a reverse mortgage, shall establish, before the consummation of such transaction, an escrow or impound account for the payment of taxes and hazard insurance, and, if applicable, flood insurance, mortgage insurance, ground rents, and any other required periodic payments or premiums with respect to the property or the loan terms, as provided in, and in accordance with, this section.

‘‘(b) WHEN REQUIRED.—No impound, trust, or other type of account for the payment of property taxes, insurance premiums, or other purposes relating to the property may be required as a condition of a real property sale contract or a loan secured by a first deed of trust or mortgage on the principal dwelling of the consumer, other than a consumer credit transaction under an open end credit plan or a reverse mortgage, except when—

‘‘(1) any such impound, trust, or other type of escrow or impound account for such purposes is required by Federal or State law;

‘‘(2) a loan is made, guaranteed, or insured by a State or Federal governmental lending or insuring agency;

‘‘(3) the transaction is secured by a first mortgage or lien on the consumer’s principal dwelling having an original principal obligation amount that—

‘‘(A) does not exceed the amount of the maximum limitation on the original principal obligation of mortgage in effect for a residence of the applicable size, as of the date such interest rate set, pursuant to the sixth sentence of section 305(a)(2) the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation Act (12 U.S.C. 1454(a)(2)), and the annual percentage rate will exceed the average prime offer rate as defined in section 129C by 1.5 or more percentage points; or

‘‘(B) exceeds the amount of the maximum limitation on the original principal obligation of mortgage in effect for a residence of the applicable size, as of the date such interest rate set, pursuant to the sixth sentence of section 305(a)(2) the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation wAct (12 U.S.C. 1454(a)(2)), and the annual percentage rate will exceed the average prime offer rate as defined in section 129C by 2.5 or more percentage points; or

‘‘(4) so required pursuant to regulation.

‘‘(c) EXEMPTIONS.—The Board may, by regulation, exempt from the requirements of subsection (a) a creditor that—

‘‘(1) operates predominantly in rural or underserved areas;

‘‘(2) together with all affiliates, has total annual mortgage loan originations that do not exceed a limit set by the Board;

‘‘(3) retains its mortgage loan originations in portfolio; and

‘‘(4) meets any asset size threshold and any other criteria the Board may establish, consistent with the purposes of this subtitle.

‘‘(d) DURATION OF MANDATORY ESCROW OR IMPOUND ACCOUNT.—An escrow or impound account established pursuant to subsection (b) shall remain in existence for a minimum period of 5 years, beginning with the date of the consummation of the loan, unless and until—

‘‘(1) such borrower has sufficient equity in the dwelling securing the consumer credit transaction so as to no longer be required to maintain private mortgage insurance;

‘‘(2) such borrower is delinquent;

‘‘(3) such borrower otherwise has not complied with the legal obligation, as established by rule; or

‘‘(4) the underlying mortgage establishing the account is terminated.

‘‘(e) LIMITED EXEMPTIONS FOR LOANS SECURED BY SHARES IN A COOPERATIVE OR IN WHICH AN ASSOCIATION MUST MAINTAIN A MASTER INSURANCE POLICY.—Escrow accounts need not be established for loans secured by shares in a cooperative. Insurance premiums need not be included in escrow accounts for loans secured by dwellings or units, where the borrower must join an association as a condition of ownership, and that association has an obligation to the dwelling or unit owners to maintain a master policy insuring the dwellings or units.

‘‘(f) CLARIFICATION ON ESCROW ACCOUNTS FOR LOANS NOT MEETING STATUTORY TEST.—For mortgages not covered by the requirements of subsection (b), no provision of this section shall be construed as precluding the establishment of an impound, trust, or other type of account for the payment of property taxes, insurance premiums, or other purposes relating to the property—

‘‘(1) on terms mutually agreeable to the parties to the loan;

‘‘(2) at the discretion of the lender or servicer, as provided by the contract between the lender or servicer and the borrower; or

‘‘(3) pursuant to the requirements for the escrowing of flood insurance payments for regulated lending institutions in section 102(d) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973.

‘‘(g) ADMINISTRATION OF MANDATORY ESCROW OR IMPOUND ACCOUNTS.—

‘‘(1) IN GENERAL.
—Except as may otherwise be provided for in this title or in regulations prescribed by the Board, escrow or impound accounts established pursuant to subsection (b) shall be established in a federally insured depository institution or credit union.

‘‘(2) ADMINISTRATION.—Except as provided in this section or regulations prescribed under this section, an escrow or impound account subject to this section shall be administered in accordance with—

‘‘(A) the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974 and regulations prescribed under such Act;

‘‘(B) the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 and regulations prescribed under such Act; and

‘‘(C) the law of the State, if applicable, where the real property securing the consumer credit transaction is located.

‘‘(3) APPLICABILITY OF PAYMENT OF INTEREST.—If prescribed by applicable State or Federal law, each creditor shall pay interest to the consumer on the amount held in any impound, trust, or escrow account that is subject to this section in the manner as prescribed by that applicable State or Federal law.

‘‘(4) PENALTY COORDINATION WITH RESPA.—Any action or omission on the part of any person which constitutes a violation of the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974 or any regulation prescribed under such Act for which the person has paid any fine, civil money penalty, or other damages shall not give rise to any additional fine, civil money penalty, or other damages under this section, unless the action or omission also constitutes a direct violation of this section.

‘‘(h) DISCLOSURES RELATING TO MANDATORY ESCROW OR IMPOUND ACCOUNT.—In the case of any impound, trust, or escrow account that is required under subsection (b), the creditor shall disclose by written notice to the consumer at least 3 business days before the consummation if the consumer credit transaction giving rise to such account or in accordance with timeframes established in prescribed regulations the following information:

‘‘(1) The fact that an escrow or impound account will be established at consummation of the transaction.

‘‘(2) The amount required at closing to initially fund the escrow or impound account.

‘‘(3) The amount, in the initial year after the consummation of the transaction, of the estimated taxes and hazard insurance, including flood insurance, if applicable, and any other required periodic payments or premiums that reflects, as appropriate, either the taxable assessed value of the real property securing the transaction, including the value of any improvements on the property or to be constructed on the property (whether or not such construction will be financed from the proceeds of the transaction) or the replacement costs of the property.

‘‘(4) The estimated monthly amount payable to be escrowed for taxes, hazard insurance (including flood insurance, if applicable) and any other required periodic payments or premiums.

‘‘(5) The fact that, if the consumer chooses to terminate the account in the future, the consumer will become responsible for the payment of all taxes, hazard insurance, and flood insurance, if applicable, as well as any other required periodic payments or premiums on the property unless a new escrow or impound account is established.

‘‘(6) Such other information as the Board determines necessary for the protection of the consumer.

‘‘(i) DEFINITIONS.—For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

‘‘(1) FLOOD INSURANCE.—The term ‘flood insurance’ means flood insurance coverage provided under the national flood insurance program pursuant to the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968.

‘‘(2) HAZARD INSURANCE.—The term ‘hazard insurance’ shall have the same meaning as provided for ‘hazard insurance’, ‘casualty insurance’, ‘homeowner’s insurance’, or other similar term under the law of the State where the real property securing the consumer credit transaction is located.’’.

(b) EXEMPTIONS AND MODIFICATIONS.—The Board may prescribe rules that revise, add to, or subtract from the criteria of section 129D(b) of the Truth in Lending Act if the Board determines that such rules are in the interest of consumers and in the public interest.

(c) CLERICAL AMENDMENT.—The table of sections for chapter 2 of the Truth in Lending Act is amended by inserting after the item relating to section 129C (as added by section 1411) the following new item:

‘‘129D. Escrow or impound accounts relating to certain consumer credit transactions.’’.
 


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